Frequently Asked Questions
What is REDD+?
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) are steps formulated to reduce greenhouse gas emission originating from deforestation and land degradation by integrating the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. As a global mechanism, REDD+ provides a unique opportunity for developing countries such as Indonesia with its vast area of forest and is under threat of deforestation to receive positive incentives from forest preservation.
The implementation of REDD+ scheme is designed to accelerate the sustainable low-carbon economic growth which eventually will be able to improve people’s welfare with equity and actively preserve the environment.
How does REDD+ works?
REDD+ works to reduce emission from deforestation and land degradation by stakeholder engagement. Aspirations from society, natives, and traditional communities are taken into account as an input in decision making process in initiation of emission reduction related activities as well as to assure their communal rights are protected.
REDD+ aims to preserve Indonesia’s nature within the low-carbon economy framework by ensuring the synergy between economic growth and emission reduction. The performance of the entities involved in the efforts to reduce emission from deforestation as well as forest and peatland degradation will be measured by their actual emission reduction and in terms of policy as well as institutional reforms that they need to undergo. The result of the measurement will take in to account for “performance-based payment” mechanism within REDD+ initiative.
Who are the beneficiaries of REDD+?
The principle of REDD+ puts an emphasis on fair and equitable distribution of benefits from the efforts to preserve the environment to the society and improvement of environment. Local communities as well as communities who reside around the forest where REDD+ operates will become the beneficiaries as well as the actors of REDD+.
A fair and well-targetted of benefits are deemed as one of the achievement of REDD+ within the context of creating an inclusive economic system which aims to improve the welfare of dependable forest society. A legitimate strategy of REDD+ provide the guidelines as well as safeguard framework that the benefits of REDD+ will delivered to the communities who protect and preserve the forest as well as the biodiversity.
What are the achievements of REDD+ implementation as of today?
REDD+ initiative in Indonesia has formulated REDD+ National Strategy which was ratified on September 2012. Indonesia’s REDD+ National Strategy was the pioneer in the country which was formulated in order to achieve the target of emission reduction in Indonesia with its 5 pillars which serve as the implementation guidelines, namely Development of REDD+ Institutional system; review and strengthening of policies and regulation; launching of strategic programs; shifts in paradigms and work culture and multi-stakeholder participation.
REDD+ National Strategy acts as the REDD+ implementation guideline in national-level and reference of regional strategies which contain specific characteristics of the region.
By the end of Phase 1 (Preparation Phase), Badan Pengelola REDD+/BP REDD+ (REDD+ Agency) has been established as the first national-level REDD+ body in the world. BP REDD+ has a mandate and become the backbone of Indonesia’s transition towards a low-carbon economy growth.
BP REDD+ moved swiftly and involved itself in many levels and related issues through thematic integration strategies in multi sectoral ministries and institutions. Synergistic collaboration encouraged numerous initiatives on improvements of forest management in Indonesia such as Moratorium on Forest and Peatlands, Satu Peta (One Map) initiative, Law Enforcement and Conflict Resolution, and launching of national programme in the Recognition and Protection of Customary Communities (PPMHA) as the implementation of MK 35.
Before the Ministry of Environment and Forestry was merged, REDD+ initiative in Indonesia through BP REDD+ has also drafted Indonesia’s REDD+ funding document known as FREDDI, the framework of REDD+ Indonesia’s safeguards known as PRISAI and guideline documents for MRV activities in Indonesia.
Who funds the REDD+ program in Indonesia?
The funding for REDD+ activities in Indonesia comes from the commitment in the Letter of Intent between the Indonesian government and the Kingdom of Norwegia which was signed on May 26, 2010. According to the Letter of Intent, the Norwegian government will be providing financial contribution to Indonesia based upon the amount of verified emission reduction according to the REDD+ scheme with the commitment value of USD 1 billion which will be delivered into several terms.
Throughout its development, REDD+ uses “incentive based on performance” to improve the scale of REDD+ program’s outcome. This mechanism works by determine the target of payment which reflect the emission reduction goals that is agreed upon. This mechanism allows negotiation to get the best yet possible opportunity through stakeholder engagement.
REDD+ Indonesia following the integration of Ministry of Environment and Forestry
What is the position of REDD+ following Ministry of Environment and Forestry Emerged as One institutions?
Currently REDD+’s administration is under of Directorate General of Climate Change Mitigation (Ministry of Environment and Forestry). Following the integration, REDD+ program is being integrated into the Action Plan of Ministry of Environment and Forestry under the leaderships of Directorate General Climate Change Mitigation.
What are the next of REDD+ Indonesia’s Program?
The integration of Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Forestry has some consequences to REDD+ Indonesia’s Program, among others is urgency to rethink about new strategy for REDD+ program and its activity for the sake of fulfill Indonesia’s commitment in reducing emission through land use sector.
Through strategic consideration between stake holders, there will be 6 activities that will be prioritized in this transition phase, namely prevention of land and forest fires; reform in law enforcement; conflict resolution; recognition and protection of customary rights; social forestry; institution empowerment, communication, campaign and stakeholder engagement.
This phase will end at the end of 2016.
How REDD+ determine its provincial partner for REDD+’s implementation?
UNDP REDD+ Indonesia program determines its provincial partner based on the estimation of emission contributed by regions. The estimation is calculated through some key criteria such as vulnerability mapping, appraisal of society’s potential capacity and identification of implementer partner. Through the credentials steps, REDD+ determine 6 provincial partners that will be prioritize in UNDP REDD+ Indonesia’s transition phase, which are West Sumatera, Riau, Jambi, South Sumatera. Central Kalimantan, and West Kalimantan. However, REDD+ has plans to expand its implementation program for other impacted province in the mid of 2016 through phase II activity.
How to ensure the implementation of REDD+ will not endanger conservation program and other environmental protection or the surrounding?
REDD+ Indonesia will be implemented through its safeguard mechanism to fulfill the standard of accountability and transparency in terms of environmental management. Safeguards REDD+ in Indonesia (known as PRISAI) aims to protect the society as well as the environment from the negative risk.
The safeguards instrument has also objective as early attempt to ensure REDD+ will not backlash its own purposes. The main function of this instrument is protection.
Other important points to be noted is to ensure a strong basis on gender equality, the sustainability of biodiversity, promotes communal ownership, the simplicity of instruments, and the ability of the instruments to accommodate national regulation as well as ratification of international convention through its aim to accommodate the diversity of local condition.
Protecting Indonesia's forest and peatlands
How many emissions resulted from deforestation and forest degradation in Indonesia?
According to FREL (Forest Reference Emission Level) submitted by Ministry of Environment and Forestry, the average of deforestation from 1990-2012 is around 918.678 hectare with 293 MtCO2e per year. In the same period, the level of forest degradation is lower which is only 507.486 hectare per year with 58 MtCO2e per year.
Calculation from peatland decomposition as a result of forest degradation and also secondary forest ranges from 151 MtCO2e per year in the period of 1990-1991 but then increase to 226 MtCO2e per year in 2011-2012.
By this total emission from deforestation, forest degradation, and peatland decomposition in 2013 estimated around 0,568 GtCO2e and projected increase to 0,593 GtCo2e in 2020.
How REDD+ save Indonesia’s forests and peatland areas?
REDD+ in Indonesia is moving beyond carbon. Given this challenge, REDD+ in Indonesia acts as a catalyst for a low-carbon society that’s offer sustainable development. By this, REDD+ initiatives must be mainstream in national and regional development plans. The REDD+ national strategy has been formulated three strategy programs to achieve its mission:
1. sustainable landscape management,
2. the implementation of an economic system based on sustainable natural resources management,
3. conservation and land rehabilitation.
These three strategy programs were designed to protect Indonesia’s natural resources from unsustainable exploitation, including protecting the remaining forests and peatland areas in Indonesia from the impacts of short-term exploitation.
The implementation of REDD+ programs gives the opportunity to take action to save the most threatened areas of forest through development of inventory system of degraded areas as well as preparing database systems related to MRV, harmonize forest areas and status according to Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (regional land use planning) and engaging parties to implement conservation practice based on local wisdom.
Achieving Indonesia's reduction emission targets
How REDD+ help Indonesia to achieve its emission reduction target?
Land use conversion is the main contributor for Indonesia’s emission. It is directly connected to the fact that almost half of Indonesia’s land areas are covered in tropical forests, plus the wide peatland areas underneath. By this regards, implementing activities targeted to reduce emission from deforestation and land degradation will significantly increase Indonesia’s chance in achieving its emission reduction target.
As the first strategy, Indonesia voluntary formulated a National Forest Reference Emission Level (FREL) for Deforestation and Forest Degradation as a reference for payment scheme based on the performance of REDD+ activities in Indonesia. By using the aforementioned data, it is hoped that the calculated emission from deforestation and forest degradation will become more robust since location and time variations are already accommodated.
The implementation of REDD+ strategy programs will guarantee a systematic and hence a sustainable forest and peatland areas management, which enable emission reduction from forest and land sectors.
REDD+ towards inclusive economy growth
How REDD+ improve the welfare of forest-dependent communities?
REDD+ is not all about maintaining a balance natural resources capital, but also about how to produce bigger gains through innovative ways to create a climate-friendly added values, mainly for Indonesia’s rural economy. Some initiatives have been started by REDD+ Indonesia to realize an environment-friendly investment, such as the New York Declaration on Forest at the US Climate Summit.
REDD+ continues to try building a strong local ecosystem through innovations that can strengthen rural development and have the potentials to be expanded.
Collaboration between REDD+ Task Force and the Ministry of Agriculture on REDD+ Phase 1 showed a successful inter-cropping practice on degraded peatland of 100 hectares in Jabiren Village, Pulang Pisau District, Central Kalimantan. Rubber and pineapple trees were planted side by side on that land, with fertilizers acting as ameliorant. This is an example showing that sustainable peatland management that is in accordance with REDD+ is applicable. Through climate-friendly innovations like this, there is a bigger chance to increase economic growth, improve communities’ welfare, and preserving the environment.