REDD+ Journey in Indonesia
Paris Agreement has sent a strong message of acknowledgment regarding the important value of forest conservation and restoration actions as a part of a global climate action. It was eventually agreed that global climate action is not only centered on energy conservation. REDD+ Mechanism was specifically mentioned as an important and obvious part in global climate change mitigation strategy in order to reach a new global objective, namely net-zero emission within the second half of this century.
Indonesia, with forest covers expanding up to 98.072,7 million hectares , or nearly 52,2 percent of its land, actually has potential in terms of implementing mechanism or schemes which provide positive incentives for collective efforts of forest preservation. Maintreaming REDD+ in Indonesia’s forest management would serve as a catalyst of implementation of low-carbon development and green economy framework. This effort will not only reduce the possibility of forest fire and land occurences, but it will also ensure that the efforts to manage climate change from land-use sector will be conducted along with demands and policies of sustainable development in Indonesia.
On the other hand, forest crisis and 2015 haze crisis has made Indonesia a carbon-emitting country. The initial calculation of the economic disadvantage for Indonesia due to 2015 fire exceeds US$16 billion (World Bank, 2015). This number is two times larger than the loss and damage due to the tsunami which struck Aceh in 2004, or in other words, equal to 1,8 percent of Indonesia Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
If Indonesia is able to stop forest and peatland fires, it would be able to reach the greenhouse gas emission reduction target of 29% in 2030.
REDD+ in Indonesia has undergone a long road since 2010 and reached a landmark in 2013 with the establishment of Governing Body of REDD+ (Badan Pengelola (BP) REDD+) in 2013 which marks the end of the active period of REDD+ Institutional Preparation Task Force (Satuan Tugas Persiapan Kelembagaan REDD+).The establishment of BP REDD+ was followed by the appointment of institutional instruments in early 2014. In the dawn of its establishment, BP REDD+ was quick in integrating policies and REDD+ programs on central, provincial, regency, until village level. Its target was national-scale aggregation.
In executing their program, BP REDD+ uses jurisdictional approach by appointing 11 priority provinces as partners in implementing REDD+ program in Indonesia. Those 11 provinces are chosen according to the estimation of their emission contribution.
In the interim period before reaching the next phase, namely transformation from preparation phase to performance-based payment, BP REDD+ has formulated strategic programs which are referred to as 5 Prerequisites and 10 Imperative Actions which aims to improve sustainable welfare for society by protecting biodiversity and reducing carbon emission.
Governmental transition and the decision to merge Environmental Ministry and Forestry Ministry along with several related state institutions for the sake of jurisdictional simplificatin stalls the movement of REDD+ and thus, it needs to reconsider its program implementation strategies.
In partnership with Climate Change Management Directorate – Ministry of Environment and Forestry, REDD+ Programs in Indonesia focuses its activities according to the urgency posed by each areas and problems in order to reach the substantiation of emission reduction from deforestation as well as forest and peatland degradation as a part of the global efforts to halt climate change while still safeguarding the means to reach economic growth target according to NAWACITA.
REDD+ Indonesia programs focus on strategic actions to prevent land and forest fire; reformation and enforcement of the law; conflict resolution; acknowledgment and protection of indigenous people; social forestry; and communication action, campaigns, and stakeholder engagements. Six provinces, namely West Sumatra, Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, and Central Kalimantan are chosen as partners in the process of implementing those 6 strategic actions of REDD+ program in Indonesia in the transtition phase preceding the Second Phase of REDD+ implementation in Indonesia.
REDD+ Task Force and BP REDD+ publications can be seen below: