Kebakaran Lahan dan Hutan

Kebakaran hutan di Kabupaten Berau, Kalimantan Timur. Besaran dampak dari peristiwa kejadian kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Indonesia memerlukan pendekatan baru yang inovatif untuk mencegah berulangnya kejadian kebakaran ini. Berbagai elemen masyarakat yang memiliki niat baik untuk menjaga tanah dan hutan disekitarnya sudah seharusnya difasilitasi untuk dapat meningkatkan kapasitasnya dalam mendeteksi munculnya api di sekitar tempat tinggal mereka.

Kejadian kebakaran hutan dan lahan gambut 2015 menempatkan Indonesia ke titik perhatian dunia. Berulangnya kejadian kebakaran kali ini bertanggung jawab atas kerugian ekonomi dengan perkiraan awal mencapai $ 16 milyar. Jumlah ini dua kali lebih besar dari kerugian dan kerusakan akibat tsunami tahun 2004 di Aceh, setara dengan 1.8% Produk Domestik Brutto (PDB) (World Bank, 2015).

Meluasnya kebakaran hutan di Indonesia menjadi tantangan bagi pembuat kebijakan dan pengelola hutan. Berulangnya kejadian kebakaran dan kaitannya dengan fenomena cuaca ekstrim membuat setiap pemegang kekuasaan di Indonesia mau tidak mau harus menggunakan prinsip kehati-hatian yang luar biasa dalam tata kelola hutan dan lahan di Indonesia.

Namun fenomena cuaca seperti El Nino, yang menyebabkan hampir seluruh wilayah kepulauan Indonesia menjadi kering, bukanlah biang kebakaran hutan di Sumatera dan Kalimantan (CIFOR, 2015).

Berdasarkan laporan sebuah lembaga riset, faktor manusia merupakan penyebab kebakaran hutan di sejumlah provinsi. Lebih dari 90 persen kebakaran hutan disebabkan karena manusia, atau sengaja dibakar.


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